Radiocarbon dating the iceman

Charcoal particles were also found in his intestine, indicating that his meal had been cooked on an open fire.

Meat Scientists from the Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment (HEP) in Tübingen have investigated the diet of Neanderthals from their bones recovered in two excavation sites in Belgium.

"No wife, no children, just the silence, God, and the ruins." Where others see only sand and scrub, Sarianidi has turned up the remnants of a wealthy town protected by high walls and battlements.

This barren place, a site called Gonur, was once the heart of a vast archipelago of settlements that stretched across 1,000 square miles of Central Asian plains.

Found near Ötzi's body were chaff and grains of einkorn and barley and also seeds of flax and poppy, as well as kernels of sloes (small plumlike fruits of the blackthorn tree) and various seeds of berries growing in the wild.There are a few sites (such as in Norfolk) where flint was mined.It has been suggested that these flint mines had more of a ritual than a utilitarian significance.The 4th millennium BC spans the years 4000 through 3000 BC.Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.Cereals were grown, of course (the land would have been worked with spades, hoes, and, perhaps, rudimentary ploughs), but there is speculation that the grain was, mostly, used for ritual purposes, and possibly, eventually (3rd millennium BC), brewing.

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